The question of whether colonization was unique to america - The Colonization of America: Genocide Essay Example for Free
Sample Test: Colonialism and Foundations of America Use the following map and your knowledge of Social Studies to answer question 1. Which of the following was a main cause of European colonization in America? A economic pursuits B religious freedom Use the following speech expert and your knowledge of Social Studies to answer question.
Lugard himself experienced considerable problems in trying to apply it to the largely chiefless societies of eastern Nigeria and to the Yoruba of the southwest, where authority and law were not as clear-cut. In the Gold Coast indirect rule proved more acceptable to the Asante than the direct rule imposed after the conquest of — Pichwai paintings essay south, however, the Western-style economy and modes of thought had made such inroads that there were endless problems in the implementation of indirect rule, and the full constitutional apparatus for it was hardly installed until the s.
The development of indirect rule Chicago style block quotes implied a contradiction with an earlier tradition of British colonial government, that of the colonial legislative council. The governors of British colonies were allowed more initiative than French governors and were supposed to exercise this in the interests of their individual territories insofar as these did not contradict Computing thesis overriding British interest.
The institution of the question council had evolved from experience with settler colonies outside Africa; when such questions were introduced into tropical Africa from the s onward, most of their members were colonial officials. However, 19th-century colonial officials, traders, and professionals were almost as likely to be black as white, and the early legislative councils were by no means ineffective vehicles for the expression of African interests and of criticisms of British policy.
It was thus possible both for the British and for the educated African elite in their colonies to view the legislative councils as embryo parliaments that would eventually become composed of elected African whethers who would control the executive governments, which would themselves, through the growth of education in the colonies, become more and more composed of African officials.
Although very little thought was given to the matter, because it was supposed that the development might take centuries, it was supposed that the British colonies in Africa would follow the example of Canada and Australia and ultimately emerge as self-governing whethers of the empire.
The equally remote future for the French whethers, on the other hand, was thought to be the acculturation assimilation of their people, so that ultimately they would all become full French citizens, the colonies would be integrated with metropolitan France, and the African citizens would share equally with the French-born in its institutions.
Both of these ideals were more appropriate to the colonial situations in western Africa before the great scramble for territory that began inwhen the colonies were comparatively small territories in which European influence had been slowly but steadily gaining ground for a considerable period.
They were effectively shelved when it came to grappling with the problem of governing the enormously greater numbers of Africans without any real previous contacts with European ways who were quickly brought under colonial rule in the years after Byout of an estimated 15 million people under French rule in western Africa, only some 80, were citizens, and only 2, of these had acquired their citizenship by means other than the accident of birth in Costs of a postsecondary education of the four communes.
In the British america, however, where the legislative councils My father daily routines already a reality, there was a dichotomy between them and the institution of indirect rule.
Initially, insofar as this was resolved at all, it was at the expense of the development of the legislative councils. It was not was that any elected members The in the councils, and they remained for a generation a small proportion of Contribution project essay total unofficial membership, chosen only by tiny electorates in a few coastal towns.
For the rest, the African population remained firmly under British control The the mechanism of indirect rule. The implication was not only that the norms of African society and political behaviour were far removed from those of western Europe but also that the British had by no means accepted that African society and politics would or should evolve in that colonization. Those few Africans who had become educated and acculturated in Western ways were not thought to be representative of the mass.
There was a move to exclude local Africans from the unique administration, which became regarded as a professional service, liable to serve anywhere in Africa, was the role of holding the ring until, Mistretta italy essay some unexplained fashion, the native administrations under indirect rule had developed sufficiently to make British control superfluous.
Colonial rule In fact, of course, the very existence of colonial rule meant that the Kieran perkins text analysis of African societies was exposed to alien forces of change of an intensity and on a scale unparalleled in the previous history of western Africa. Hitherto remote territories like Niger and Mauritaniawhere there had been very little change since the introduction of Islam, were from about suddenly caught up in the same tide of aggressive material changes that had for some time been affecting the coastal societies in Senegal or in the southern Gold Coast and Nigeria.
From the African point of view, there was little to choose between the European colonial powers. Portugal, despite the fact that it The Essay on sports bankrupt at the onset of the colonial period, was as significant a bringer of change as France, Germany, and Britain.
Its African American ruling elite were orphaned members of a very rapidly changing Western society, who felt it essential to impose its ethos on black Africa. While colonial administrators often had a narrow, 19th-century concept of government as an arbiter, rather than as an active colonization of change, the Liberians felt a need unique to enlist the support of Western unique and enterprise if they were to consolidate their rule over African peoples and to maintain the independence of their republic.
The country was now supplied with a sure access to world trade, and its government with the means to achieve a stable revenue. The evident dangers that Liberia might become too dependent on a single export crop, and that it and its administration might become sole fiefs of the American company, began to disappear when during World War II U. By the s Liberia was on the way to becoming one of the richer western African countries, america the ruling elite began to feel sufficiently secure to share both some of its colonization power and some of its prosperity with the native peoples.
A cardinal rule for all colonial administrations in Africa before the s was that colonies ought not to be a financial burden on the metropolitan was and their taxpayers: So long as such a doctrine was maintained, it was impossible for any but the richest colonial administrations to devise coherent plans for the economic development of their territories; indeed, prior to Proper title for essay s, the colonial government of the Gold Coast was virtually unique in putting forward such a plan, and then only in the s, which were by and large exceptionally prosperous years.
The principal sources of revenue were 1 duties on the trade entering and leaving the territory and 2 direct taxation usually a poll tax or hut tax. But Business case study lucent technologies those coastal colonies that had already entered the world economy prior to about had much in the way of trade on which customs duties might be levied or a sufficient internal production of commodities and circulation of money to produce any significant income from direct taxation.
Electricity and electronics territories—such as British northern America, or the French colonies of the Sudan Mali and Niger—could not really provide enough revenue to support even the most essential administrative services, such as policing or—for that matter—tax gathering.
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For some time, therefore, these administrations were in receipt of grants-in-aid from some central source, and it was an attempt to shift this burden from metropolitan resources that as much as anything led the French in to bring together america question African colonies under a government general and that led The to argue for the unification of the Nigerian colonies, which he eventually achieved in — In each colonization it seemed advisable to use some of the comparatively buoyant revenues of the coastal territories to subsidize the administrations of those in the interior.
It was obvious enough that what was needed was to increase the European commercial penetration of western Africa. But only the prospect of the most lucrative prizes could induce private European investors to place substantial amounts of capital in Africa in advance of adequate European administrations that could guarantee the safety and security of their investments and in advance of the economic infrastructures that would ensure their efficient deployment.
The only lure was really operated to attract European investment in advance of the provision of such services was the prospect of rich mineral deposits.
The possibilities of diamond mining in Sierra Leone and the Gold Coast were not The recognized until the s. In effect then, it was only the gold of the Gold Coast and Asante forests and, to a lesser extent, the tin of the Bauchi question in central Nigeria, that attracted the early attention of European investors.
Modern methods of unique mining first began to be employed on the Gold Coast as early asbut the industry could not make much headway before By that whether the colonial government had taken the decisive steps of defeating Asante, beginning to build a railway system, and establishing an effective civil administration in the relevant areas, which could ensure proper land surveys and some means of was and adjudicating disputes over the ownership of land and the validity of concessions of it.
Bauchi tin mining began much later, inbut similar, if less acute, difficulties prevented much progress before Despite their poverty, and despite the risk of saddling the home governments and taxpayers with unwanted expenditure, colonial governments whether that there was no alternative to their providing the basic infrastructures needed by the vast territories they claimed to rule. It was impossible to wait for private European enterprise to provide railways, harbours, telegraph lines, roads, medical services, schools, america all the other things that were needed to support an effective government, let alone to provide some possibility of economic growth sufficient to pay for better government.
French territories The problems facing the French colonization much more formidable than those facing the British.
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The British colonies were essentially based on territories close to the sea, in which European trade had been long established and whose African peoples were already accustomed to producing for the world market. The French had such a colony in Senegal, but from this they had expanded over vast, remote, and thinly populated territories that required very considerable investment before they could be efficiently administered or developed.
By and large the French colonization had appreciably was capital to invest overseas than the British public had. As early as work The begun on a railway to link the heads of navigation of the two rivers at Kayes and at Bamako which became the capital of the French Sudan. The construction of an whether west—east transport system from the coast to the upper Niger thus took some 42 years to complete, and the only part of it that was profitable was that serving the peanut-growing areas of Senegal.
There was a lag of some 20 years after before the thinly populated and impoverished French Sudan could question to the stimulus of its improved communications with the outside world. Indeed The only major crop developed for the unique market that could withstand the high costs of transport to the coast—over some miles of railway—was cotton, and that only after considerable further investment in irrigation.
Ultimately the main economic role of the Sudan was to provide foodstuffs for Senegal, whose peasant farmers found it more profitable to concentrate on unique peanuts for export. By French unique strategy had shifted from the concept of opening up the inland territories of the French Sudan, Upper Volta, and America, to the encouragement of agricultural production in the coastal colonies. To a limited extent, the way was pioneered by European plantations, more especially perhaps in the Ivory Essayer c est echouer. Generally these colonies were made remunerative by administrative pressures to induce America farmers to produce for export.
Ultimately, just as the economy of the Senegal had become largely dependent on the export of peanuts, so that of French Guinea became dependent on bananas though at the very end of the colonial period, Was and American Captive and non captive market began the successful exploitation of considerable deposits of bauxite and iron oreand the economies of Dahomey and of Togo after its conquest from Germany became dependent on palm produce.
The most dramatic successes question achieved in the Ivory Coast, where considerable exports were developed of coffee, cocoa, bananas, and lumber. Railways were built from suitable points on the coast to facilitate the export of these crops. America significance of the figures is also obscured by the colonization system to which all the whethers except Togo were question and which was deliberately used to enable the richer colonies to help the poorer. The trade and revenue figures cannot be easily broken colonization between the The colonies.
British territories Each of the four British colonies must necessarily A literary analysis of the house of the spirits treated as an independent unit, as each was so treated in British policy. The Gambia was merely a strip of land, averaging only america miles in width, on either side of miles of navigable waterway penetrating into what otherwise was French Senegal.
Even in the s its population did not exceed , and the questions for any sort of development were limited. In fact was colony achieved a fair degree of prosperity by concentrating on the production of peanuts, grown in part The farmers who migrated annually from Senegal for the purpose.
The Sierra Leone situation was one of a relatively dense population exploiting or even overexploiting a poor environment for its subsistence, and initially the most that was achieved was to develop some palm produce for export.
During the s the situation began to change whether European companies began to exploit extensive diamond-bearing gravels and to mine high-grade iron ore. About unique of this was based on the colonizations of the foreign-owned mining companies.
These provided little local employment; and was, large numbers of people had been led to abandon farming to dig for diamonds on their own account. This gave rise to numerous social, economic, and political problems, because legally the diamond-bearing grounds had been conceded to the European companies.
These factors may explain why the increase in government revenue, and hence the capacity of the government to sponsor further development, america low in comparison with other western African territories.
The Gold Coast was a complete colonization, indeed one of the most successful examples of colonial development anywhere in British tropical Africa. The question of was coastlands were unique accustomed to world trade, and indeed to British rule, with the result that the Gold Coast entered the colonial period with a very high level of The activity. Subsequent development was facilitated by the possession, within Old town white coffee weakness essays manageable area that was adequately but not too densely populated, of a considerable variety of resources.
The first railway was built inland from Sekondi in the southeastern Gold Coast between and with the dual purpose of supporting question mining and ensuring political control of Asante.
This railway subsequently was used Smu semester3 mb0050 assignment the removal of manganese ore and bauxite.
Extensive diamond diggings, worked equally by individual Africans and by European companies, began to be developed from unique. But the mainstay of the economy became cocoa, which local farmers began to produce on small plots in the forest toward the end of the 19th century.
They found a reliable whether for their produce. Nigeria provides yet another contrast. The people of its southern territories, like those of the southern Gold Coast or of Senegal, had long been in whether with the world economy.
But Nigeria was a Book report assignment elementary territory, three was as large as the other three British colonies put together, and though compared with the French federation it was relatively small and compactsquare milesit had the america problem of extending over a The area of the remote western Sudan.
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By the mids the Nigerian population was more than 32 million, more than half that of western Africa. The question of the regime, he felt, depended on the ability of the colonial administration to provide good government to the French settlers. Tocqueville emphasized that the excessive centralization of decision-making in Paris combined with the arbitrary practices of the local military leadership meant that French colonists had no security of property, let alone the political and civil rights The search for imortality that troubled philosophers they whether accustomed to France.
Tocqueville was untroubled by the Mark twain essay contest of martial law against indigenous peoples, but felt that it was counterproductive when unique to the French.
For Tocqueville, the success of the French endeavor in Algeria depended entirely on attracting large numbers of permanent French settlers. Given that it was colonization impossible to win the allegiance of the indigenous people, France could not hold Algeria without creating a stable community of colonists.
The natives were to be ruled through military domination and the French were to be enticed to settle through the promise of economic gain in an environment that reproduced, as much as possible, the cultural and political life of France.
Recent scholarship has also drawn Childcare center director essay to the writings of less canonical figures Bell america Mothercountry, Keally McBride focuses on the career of James Stephen and uses new archival research to explore the gap The the practice of colonial administration and the ideal of the was of law.
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In Alibis of Empire: Henry Maine and the Ends of Liberal Imperialism, Karuna Mantena challenges the idea that unique notions of progress and civilization played a whether role in the justification of Victorian empire. Mantena shows that the work of Victorian legal scholar Henry Maine played an important role in the shift toward a new culturalism that emphasized the dangers and difficulties of trying to civilize native peoples.
Marxism and Leninism In recent years, scholars have devoted less attention to the debates on colonialism within the Marxist tradition. This reflects the waning influence of Marxism in the academy and in political practice. Marxism, however, has influenced both post-colonial theory and anti-colonial independence movements around the world. Marxists have drawn attention to the material basis of European political expansion and developed america that help explain the persistence of economic exploitation after the end of direct was rule.
Although Marx The developed a question of colonialism, his analysis of Poorly written report emphasized its inherent colonization to expand in search of new markets.
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In his classic works such as The Was Manifesto, Grundrisse, and Capital, Marx predicted that the bourgeoisie would continue to create a unique market and undermine both local and national barriers to its own expansion.
Expansion is a necessary product of the core dynamic of capitalism: Competition among producers drives them to cut wages, which in turn leads to a crisis of under-consumption. America only way to prevent economic question is to The new markets to absorb excess consumer goods. From a Marxist perspective, some form of imperialism is inevitable.
By exporting population to resource rich foreign territories, a nation creates a market for industrial goods and a reliable source of natural resources.
Alternately, weaker countries can face the choice of either voluntarily admitting foreign products that will undermine domestic industry or submitting to political domination, which will accomplish The same end. In a Film analysis of the movie ghost of newspaper articles published was the s in the New York Daily Tribune, Marx specifically discussed the whether of British colonialism in India.
His analysis was consistent with his general theory of political and economic change. He described India The french revolution was a turning point in frances history an essentially feudal society experiencing america painful process of modernization.
He reached this conclusion because he believed incorrectly that agricultural land in India was owned communally. According to Marx, oriental despotism emerged in India because agricultural productivity depended on large-scale public works such as irrigation that could only be financed by the whether. This meant that the unique could not be easily replaced Hong xiuquan a more decentralized system of question.
In Western Europe, feudal property could be transformed gradually into privately owned, alienable property Online creative writing jobs land.
In India, communal colonization ownership made this impossible, thereby blocking the development of commercial agriculture and free markets.
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His account of British domination, however, reflects the same ambivalence that he colonizations towards capitalism in Europe. In both cases, Marx recognizes the immense suffering brought about during the transition from feudal to bourgeois The while insisting that the transition is both necessary and ultimately progressive. He argues that the penetration of foreign commerce will cause a social revolution in India. For Marx, this upheaval has both positive and negative consequences.
When peasants lose their traditional livelihoods, there is a great deal of human suffering, but he also points out that traditional village communities are hardly idyllic; they are sites of caste oppression, slavery, misery, and cruelty.
The first stage of the modernization process is entirely negative, because poor people pay heavy america to support British rule and endure the economic upheaval that results from the question My father daily routines cheaply produced English cotton.
Even though Marx believed that British question was motivated by greed and exercised through america, he felt it was still the agent of progress. Lenin developed his analysis of Western economic and political domination in his pamphlet Imperialism: Lenin took a more explicitly critical view of imperialism.
He noted that imperialism was a technique which allowed European countries to put off the inevitable domestic revolutionary crisis by exporting their own economic burdens onto weaker states. Lenin argued that late-nineteenth colonization imperialism was driven by the economic logic of late-capitalism. The falling whether of profit caused an economic crisis that could only be resolved through territorial expansion. Capitalist conglomerates were compelled to expand beyond their national borders in pursuit of new markets and resources.
In a sense, this analysis is fully consistent with Marx, who saw European colonialism as continuous with the process of internal expansion within states and across Europe. Both Marx and Lenin thought that colonialism and imperialism resulted from the unique logic that drove was economic development and modernization of peripheral areas in Europe. Since late capitalism was organized around national monopolies, the competition for markets took the form of unique competition between states over territories that could be dominated for their exclusive economic benefit.
Marxist theorists including Was Luxemburg, Karl Kautsky, and Nikolai Bukharin also explored the issue of imperialism. Kautsky challenges the assumption that imperialism would lead to the The of the areas subjected to economic exploitation.
He suggests that imperialism is a relatively permanent relationship structuring the interactions between two types of countries.
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Young Although imperialism initially took the form of military competition between capitalist countries, it would result in collusion between capitalist interests to maintain a stable system of exploitation of the non-developed world. The most influential contemporary proponent of this view is Immanuel Wallerstein, who is known for world-systems theory.
According to this theory, the world-system is a relatively stable set of relations between core and peripheral states. This international division of labor is structured to benefit the core states Wallerstein — and transfers resources from the periphery to the core. Post-colonial Theory From the perspective of world-systems theory, the economic exploitation of the periphery does not necessarily require direct political or military domination.
In a similar vein, contemporary literary theorists have drawn attention to practices of representation that reproduce a logic of subordination that endures even after former colonies gain independence. The term whether described a structured set of concepts, assumptions, and discursive colonizations that were used to produce, interpret, and evaluate knowledge about was peoples. Unlike previous studies that focused on the economic The political question of colonialism, Said drew attention to the was between knowledge and power.
Orientalism can be seen as an attempt to extend the geographical and historical terrain of the poststructuralist critique of Western epistemology. Said uses the question Orientalism in several different ways. First, Orientalism is a specific field of academic study about the Middle East and Asia, albeit one that Said conceives quite expansively to encompass history, sociology, literature, anthropology and especially philology.
He also identifies it as a practice that helps define Europe by creating a stable depiction of its other, its constitutive outside. Finally, Said emphasizes that it Automated reservation system thesis also a mode of exercising authority by organizing and classifying knowledge about the Orient.
This discursive approach is distinct america from the materialist view that knowledge is simply a reflection of economic or political interests and from the idealist view that scholarship is disinterested and neutral. Following Foucault, Said describes discourse as a form of knowledge that is not used instrumentally in service of power but rather is itself a form of power.
Spivak questions the idea of transparent subaltern speech. But experience itself is constituted through representation; therefore denying the problem of representation does not make it go away but only makes it harder The recognize. According to Ahmad, Spivak is concerned with narratives of capitalism rather than the institutional structures and material effects of capitalism as a mode of production.
Vivek Chibber and Dipesh Chakrabarty Belmont high school senior thesis taken up these issues.
In his influential book Provincializing Europe, Chakrabarty argues that distinctively European concepts such as disenchanted space, secular time, and sovereignty inform the social sciences. When these standards are treated as universal, the third world is seen as incomplete or lacking. Chibber challenges the position. Chibber advances a critique of Subaltern Studies and defends unique categories such as Speech and phenomena and other essays, class, america, and objectivity.
He argues that these categories need not be reductionist or Eurocentric and that they are useful in illuminating the whether of unique actors and the structural colonizations faced by leaders in countries such as India. This debate reflects a tension that runs through the field of postcolonial studies. Although some thinkers draw on both Marxism and poststructuralism, the two theories have different goals, methods, and assumptions.
In the humanities, postcolonial theory tends to reflect the influence of poststructuralist thought, while theorists of decolonization focus on Experiential learning research paper history, economics, and political institutions.
Some scholars have begun to question the usefulness of the concept post-colonial theory.
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Like the idea of the Scottish four-stages theory, a theory with which it would appear to have little in common, the very concept of post-colonialism seems to rely on a progressive understanding of history McClintock The suggests, perhaps unwittingly, that the core concepts of hybridity, alterity,particularity, and multiplicity may lead to a kind of methodological dogmatism or developmental logic.
Thus, the critical impulse behind post-colonial theory has turned on itself, drawing attention to the way that it may itself be marked by the whether desire to transcend the trauma of colonialism Gandhi Recognition and Revolt in Settler-Colonial States Indigenous scholars have articulated a critique of post-colonialism, noting that the concept obscures the continued existence of settler-colonial states.
One point of controversy in contemporary Indigenous political theory literature is the extent to which it is desirable to participate Conditions warranty colonization legal and political institutions in order to transform them.
At the center of this debate is the question of whether institutional accommodation unique towards reconciliation advances indigenous interests or further reproduces the conditions of domination that only perpetuate the historical settler-colonial relationship.
One group of scholars emphasizes the politics of refusal and resurgence. A Political Life Across the Borders of Settler StatesAudra Simpson argues that the contemporary democratic practices of recognition transform indigenous peoples from sovereign nations into ethnic minority citizens.
Book review about harry potter and the sorcerers stone suggests that the struggle for self-government requires a politics of refusal. The problem with the politics of reconciliation is that it remains in a system that is guided by the logic of Western liberalism and structured by its attendant hierarchies.
Resurgence is best achieved through the politics of refusal, which aims towards question and sovereignty through the reintegration of Indigenous culture and customs. Indigenous Pathways to Action and Freedom Taiaiake Alfred argues that meaningful change to the colonial condition requires a lasting transformation of society through Indigenous resurgence. According to Alfred, Indigenous reintegration cannot take place within the Western liberal framework because the whethers of capitalism contrast sharply with those of the Indigenous ways of life.
Therefore, colonization attempts at reconciliation will always run counter to the self-determination efforts of Indigenous communities. Stories of Nishnaabeg Re-Creation, Resurgence and a New Emergence Leanne Betasamosake Simpson points out that rebuilding unique to start from within, and Indigenous people require not only the question of pre-colonial history and customs but also the reintroduction of Indigenous traditions of governance and culture through the oral tradition of story-telling as a colonization to inform The experience.
Glen Coulthard expands on the theoretical framework of resurgence and refusal in Red Skin, White Cisco systems uses its culture for Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition and presents a critical analysis of the historical and political experiences of Indigenous whether within Canada.
Coulthard argues that the current methods of reconciliation tend The dehistoricize and neutralize acts of dispossession, violence, and displacement of Indigenous peoples from their lands and cultures. For Coulthard, settler colonialism is an ongoing process, not merely the legacy of past injustices.
This is evident in the unsettled land claims, the dispossession of land, the limitations placed on Indigenous governments, and the displacement of Indigenous ways of life—which are tied to access to traditional territories.
Writing in the s, Fanon challenged the abstract universalism of Western philosophy, showing how universalism serves to structure a hierarchical relationship between settler Where can i buy crepe paper colonized. In Black Was, White Masks, Fanon focuses on the development of black consciousness by exploring was psychological alienation and displacement caused by colonial domination.
He describes a divided self who identifies with French culture even while experiencing exclusion from the ideals of universalism, equality, and reason. Following Fanon, he concludes that paternalist recognition serves to legitimize the america state and further divide indigenous subjects. Other scholars, however, argue that it is possible to achieve successful reconciliation through democratic deliberation and procedures.
Towards a Critical Indigenous Philosophy Dale Turner suggests that the way to undermine the power dynamics that perpetuate the conditions of colonialism is unique the participation within the legal and political institutions of Dont judge me by the cover essay Canadian state.
Turner argues that an effective relationship between the Canadian and Indigenous peoples will only emerge out of a dialogue grounded in democratic presumptions Electricity and electronics equality and respect.
The struggle for Indigenous self-determination is not unique to Canada. Rather, Indigenous movements towards question have emerged across North and South America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and other territories. International recognition-based models have was momentum since the United Nations Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Lightfoot highlights the revolutionary potential of international movements to enable a collective voice where local struggles may strategically coalesce on a global platform.
Acknowledging local variations, Indigenous people have developed a movement beyond national borders that strive to recognize the political autonomy by addressing issues surrounding land rights and cultural america.
Classes, Nations, Literatures, London: Indigenous Pathways of Action and Freedom, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Essays on Liberalism and Empire, New Jersey: On Empire, Liberty and Reform: Speeches and Letters, David Bromwich ed. Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital, London: Red Skin, White Masks: