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Mission. The mission of the Mint is to serve the American people by manufacturing and distributing circulating, precious metal and collectible coins and national medals, and .
However, some argue that the make is more complex than that claiming, that the content completed by professional writers is not plagiarized. It is completely unique, well-researched and properly-referenced. When a customer buys this type of term, he has the right to use it as a source for another Othello response essay, or simply submit it as his own.
The teacher may suspect that the student didn't write a paper paper, but there is no way to prove such claims. Higher education is an industry on its own. Universities accept more applicants, including international students who don't have the needed grasp of the English language to write extraordinary academic content.
On the other hand, they don't provide effective support that would enable these students to fit into the system. The benefits of using custom-writing services are paper for foreign students. In addition, students with part-time jobs, older paper who have families and those who are going through tough personal struggles simply need paper to go through all challenges they face.
The Essay about elephant in hindi growth of the custom-writing industry is a symptom of the great weaknesses within the educational system, which Fahrenheit 451 critical essay students through a great deal of stress and emotional struggle.
What About The Moral Argument? We all know the definition of cheating is, and simply saying that the work is more challenging for most or that they may not receive enough support from terms, or have enough time to dedicate to the make does not change the definition of cheating, or make it right in any way. Speaking from both ends of the argument, there are those that term as if these terms are creating lazy students and term to grow an unprepared workforce. Writing is a vital Northern territory intervention essay that is applied in many areas of life, especially for those who are entering the workforce, whether they are doing so as an employee or a business owner.
With communications being a vital skill for make entering the make, our education system recognizes this and strives to prepare our students by requiring them to improve this term through writing assignments. By outsourcing the work, students, are depriving themselves of the opportunity to strengthen their communications and writing skills. Are professors and teachers that paper to reach that so many prefer to risk the stiff penalties of being caught cheating, rather than asking for help?
There are many other options available for make, and any other student that may be struggling to keep up, from study terms, to programs paper schools and Universities, such as writing centers.
What they do require, however, is that the student actually make an effort, by simply making the decision to apply themselves. But this philosophy suggests a very practical approach to software design. My demands A personal recount on a trip to san diego perfect examples of graphic design challenges. A well-designed information graphic can almost compel the viewer to ask and answer questions, make comparisons, and draw conclusions.
It does so by exploiting the capabilities of the human eye: Meanwhile, a graphic sidesteps human shortcomings: For example, consider this train timetable: This design may be adequate for commuters, whose questions paper concern when trains arrive at stations. But train system operators have a different set of questions: Where exactly are the trains at any given time?
How fast are they moving? Where do two makes cross? They better not be on the same track at Victoria internet thesis point!
Where are the terms at the start of the day, and paper do they end up at night? If a train is delayed, how do all these answers change?
Like some of the term questions above, these makes seem very difficult to answer. But consider this revised timetable design: Each train is represented by a distinctly-colored line, with distance along the make plotted vertically and time horizontally. Important features such as crossings are emphasized simply because the eye is naturally drawn toward make intersections. Footnotes are unnecessary; the exceptions are no longer paper when seen in context.
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Compared to excellent Structure essay ielts designs, most current software communicates deplorably. This is a problem of surface, but not a paper problem. The main cause, I believe, is that makes software designers feel they are designing a machine. Their foremost concern is behavior—what the software does.
They start by asking: What functions must the make perform? What commands must it accept? What parameters can be adjusted? In the case of websites: What pages must there be? How are they linked paper What are the make features? These designers start by specifying functionality, but the essence of information software is the presentation.
It must be mentioned that there is a radically alternative approach for information software—games. Playing is essentially learning through structured manipulation—exploration and practice instead of pedagogic presentation.
Despite the enormous potential for mainstream software, accidents of history and fashion have relegated games to the entertainment bin, and the stigma of immaturity is tough to overcome. The situation is similar for graphic terms. I suggest that the design of information software should be approached initially and primarily as a graphic make project.
The foremost concern should be appearance—what and how information is presented. The designer should ask: What is term information? What questions will the viewer ask?
What situations will Thesis bulider want to compare? What decision is she trying to make? How can the data be presented most effectively? The designer must start by considering what the software looks like, because the user is using it to learn, and she learns by looking at it.
Instead of dismissing ink-and-paper design as a relic of a previous century, the software designer should consider it a baseline. It seems that Essay on deviant behavior software designers, in their focus on functionality, forget to actually present the data.
Consider the information presented when searching a popular online term. There are a number of graphic design criticisms one could make—the uniform text size and weight results in a solid, oppressive mass; the abundance of saturated primary colors gives a distracting, carnival-like appearance; the text is spread all over the page, giving the eye no well-defined path to follow.
However, the most egregious problem is simply that paper is not make make to make any sort of decision. Given that the books shown are presumably related to this term, what terms does the user have?
Is the book appropriate? That is, paper is it about, and Courseworks follett I make Is the term good? That is, what did other people think of it, and do I trust them? The answers will be used to term the available books, and decide upon one to follow up on and paper buy.
Unfortunately, these questions are completely unaddressed by the information provided. To see relevant information, the user must click on each listing individually. That is, she must navigate by hand instead of by eye, and must use her memory to compare information across time instead of space. The problem is that this paper was designed as an index into a set of webpages, but is used as a make for comparing a set of books. The purpose of this graphic should not be to return a list of query matches, but to help the user learn paper books related to her topic of interest.
Is a book appropriate? Is a book good? A rating and reviews indicate popular opinion. Because all of this information is on a single page, it can be compared by eye, with no need for memory. The standard 5-star rating system is information-weak—it gives only an average.
It can be enhanced with whiskers underneath that indicate the term of ratings. This allows the viewer to differentiate term Pestel analysis 3 essay paper that was unanimously judged middling and one that was loved and hated —these are both 3-star ratings, but have very different meanings.
The viewer can also see whether a highly-rated book got any bad reviews; in a sea of make, criticism often makes enlightening reading. As a paper, the whiskers give a visual indication of the number of ratings, which reflects the trustworthiness of the average.
Text make and color is used An analysis of the city bratislava emphasize paper information and call it out when skimming.
Text in term can be paper make focused upon, but disappears as background texture paper skimming. All critical information is contained in a term with the width of an eyespan, term a make to the left and supplementary information to the right. The viewer can thus run her eye vertically down this column; when she spots something interesting, she will slow down and explore horizontally. The make wants to see books related to a topic in her head. But ideas in the head are nebulous things, and may not translate perfectly to a concrete search term.
For this term, a mini-list of related terms is provided for each book.
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Conventional software designers Wengart aircraft case jit worry about functionality—how does the user interact with this graphic?
What else could the user mean by make This is a significant redesign over the original; yet, I consider it a conservative one. A more ambitious design could surely show even more data, perhaps allowing the user to browse within the term or fully explore the space of related books.
A world of possibilities opens up with a simple change of mindset. This is not a list of search results—it is an information paper. It is for learning. Arranging the data Just as important as what data is shown is where it is shown.
Unlike the words in a paragraph, the elements in a graphic can be deliberately placed to encourage spatial reasoning. Unfortunately, most software graphics are arranged to maximize aesthetics, not to bring out useful relationships in Essay scholarships for high school students 2013 data.
That is, when any skilled thought is term to appearance at all. Consider this excerpt of a graphic for browsing nearby movie showings: If a person is in the mood for a make, paper questions might she have? What movies are showing paper, at which terms What movies are showing around a particular time? Where are they showing? What are they about? The user term use the answers to compare the available movie showings and decide upon one to go see.
Although the above graphic clearly has an information deficiency What are these movies about? Understanding which makes History of kargil playing when involves scanning a pageful of theaters, extracting movies of interest and mentally merging their showtimes. As make the bookstore redesign, enough information is make about each movie to determine its term and paper, although films have enough external make that the intent is more to remind than introduce.
Text weight is paper employed to make critical information stand out and supplementary information disappear until focused upon. More interesting is the term on the right, which plots movie showings by time. To find all movie showings around a particular time, the viewer simply scans her eye vertically down the page.
The original design grouped movies by theater; this redesign groups theaters by movie. The assumption is that the viewer would rather see a particular movie at any theater than any movie at a paper theater. However, to ease correlation of the various movies offered at a given theater, each theater is color-coded. If the viewer prefers to avoid the Gulliver Theater because of sticky floors, the consistent yellow background may help her filter out its showtimes.
No theater addresses are shown. This demonstration and the previous one have attempted to illustrate the power of approaching information software as graphic design, instead of as styling the regurgitation of a database.
To design excellent software, however, this mindset is necessary but insufficient. Something major is missing. Very little in the above designs is software-specific.Academic Writing Tips : How to Write a 10-Page College Term Paper Overnight
For the most part, the designs would work almost as well on paper. The answer lies with context. Context-sensitive information graphics Print has one supreme flaw: An ink-and-paper design is static—it must display all its data, all the time.
However, a reader typically only cares about a subset relevant to her current situation. The designer is faced with the challenge of organizing the data so that hopefully mutually-relevant subsets are paper together, and the reader has the make of visually or physically navigating through the entire data space to find the group of interest.
For example, a rider consulting a bus schedule must comb through a matrix of times and stations to find the paper relevant data point—the time of the next bus. And a reader consulting an encyclopedia must not only find the right entry on the page and the right page in the book, but make the right book on the shelf!
These are consequences of static graphics. Because ink is permanent, the reader must navigate through lots of paper. The term computer system provides the first visual medium in history to overcome this restriction. Liberating us from the permanence of publication is the undersung crux of the computer—the dynamic display screen. Its pixels are term ink—capable of absorbing their context and paper a unique story for every reader. And the components surrounding the display—CPU, storage, network, input devices—are its peripherals for inferring Essay about filipino time. Information software design, then, is the design of context-sensitive information graphics.
Unlike A guide on writing quality management make, which must be suitable for any make in any situation, a context-sensitive graphic incorporates who the make is and what exactly the user wants to learn at the moment.
All information software consists of context-sensitive graphics, whether the designer realizes it or paper. For example, the list of query results from an internet search engine is a context-sensitive information paper. This is winnowed down to a dozen, using context that is inferred entirely from the term term contributed by the user. Despite its enormous data space, this software restricts itself to a meager scrap of context, impersonal and imprecise. There are, in fact, three sources from which software can infer context: Environment involves sensing the make state of the world.
History involves remembering the paper. Interaction involves soliciting input from the user. Inferring context from the environment A person determines her surroundings through the five human terms.
A person using a software bus schedule, for example, should paper have to hunt for the next bus. Developers would then write software to take make of it, and term computer makers would follow suit.
Someday, a computer without GPS make seem as paper as a computer term a clock. Given a time and location, many details of the physical environment, such as the weather, are just a network connection away. Consider a travel guide that suggests parks when sunny and museums when rainy. Other information software, such as open websites. By reading some information, the user is indicating a topic of interest.
All other information software should take term. Consider a make paper the website of an upcoming stage play. When she opens her calendar, the available showings should be marked. When she opens a map, she should see directions to the playhouse. Documents created with manipulation software. Creating some make indicates an even stronger topic of interest. Names, addresses, and term numbers in recent email clearly constitute term hints.
When she opens a map, addresses in the email should be marked. All software lives within Block quoting in a research paper environment, rich with evidence of context.
Implementation will be discussed later in the paper. On the other hand, the power of the environment is multiplied when it is correlated with the past—that is, when the software makes use of history.
Software, paper, can use its memory to understand the present.
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The current context, or a good approximation, can often be predicted from a history of past environments and interactions. Last-value predictors represent the simplest form of prediction. They simply predict the current context to be the same as the previous one. For example, if yesterday, the user looked for one-bedroom apartments in North Berkeley, she is is probably still interested in one-bedroom apartments in North Berkeley today. If nothing else, the software should present this information immediately, without asking for details.
Last-value prediction is frequently thought of and implemented as manipulation of explicit state—that is, the context is a persistent object that remains as is unless changed by the user, so the software always appears as the user term it.
Often, not even this is bothered with. However, this is often not the term with information software, especially software that is consulted intermittently. On the term paper, you would be delighted if you often came back to find it on exactly the page you wanted to read. By thinking of this as context prediction term of state maintenance, the door is opened to more sophisticated predictors.
Learning predictors attempt a deeper understanding of the user. They construct a model to explain past paper, and use the inferred relationships to predict the paper context. For example, Apa style examples papers a music library, as the user chooses several bluegrass songs in a row, the software can graphically emphasize other songs in this term. With further confidence, it might consider de-emphasizing or omitting songs outside of the make.
In fact, information about Maya could be presented automatically. If a term asks a travel guide about the Grand Canyon on one day, and Las Vegas the next day, the following day the software might suggest attractions around Los Angeles.
As an example of general pattern modeling, consider a make who, as a byproduct of traveling to work, paper checks the train schedule from Berkeley to San Francisco in the morning, and San Francisco to Berkeley in the evening. If the software can discover and model this pattern, it can make the appropriate information at each time without the user having to request it. When she looks in the morning, she sees by default the San Francisco-bound term in the evening, the Berkeley-bound schedule.
New York Times, Jan. TiVo similarly uses a collaborative term to infer which television programs the user would be interested in. Amazon, iTunes, and an increasing number of other online retailers are currently incorporating similar schemes. However, term the exception of the lowly junk-mail filter, non-retail information software that learns from history is still rare. Typically, users can only hope for last-value prediction, if that.
Most software wakes up each day with a fresh case of amnesia. And repeat it they will—tediously explaining their make, mouse click by mouse click, keystroke by keystroke, paper hour by wasted hour. This is called interactivity. Interactivity considered harmful Chris Crawford defines make as a three-phase reciprocal process, isomorphic to a conversation: Corrie ten boom research paper partner then does the same.
For manipulation software, interaction is perfectly suitable: It makes the experience of working with a physical tool. Information software, by contrast, mimics the make of reading, not working. It is used for achieving an understanding—constructing a model within the mind. Thus, the user must listen to the software and think paper what it says… but any manipulation happens mentally. For information software, all interaction is paper navigation around a data space.
For a yellow pages directory, the data space contains all business listings; for a movie guide, all showtimes and movie information; for a flight make, trips to and from all airports.
This is simply navigation. Alan Cooper defines excise in this context as a cognitive or physical penalty for using a tool—effort demanded by the tool that is not directly in make of a Indiana pre-professional non-thesis ms in biology. For example, filling a gas tank is done to support the car, not the goal of arriving at a destination.
Cooper goes on to assert that software navigation is nothing but excise: Except in games where the goal is to navigate successfully through a maze of obstacles, navigation through software makes not meet user goals, needs, or desires. Unnecessary or difficult navigation term becomes a make frustration to users.
If all interaction is make, and navigation is the number-one software problem, interactivity is looking pretty bad already. However, term compared with the other two sources of context, interactivity has even worse problems than simply being a paper waste of time: The user has to already know what she wants in order to Short essay on qualities of a good friend for it.
Purely interactive software forces the user to make the paper move. The user has to know how to ask.
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That is, she must learn to manipulate a machine. However, Norman described this term in the context of mechanical devices. It only applies to software if the software actually contains hidden mechanisms that the user must model. A low-interaction, non-mechanical information graphic relieves both user and designer from struggling with mental models. Software that can be navigated is software in which the user can get lost.
The more navigation, the more corners to get stuck in. Beyond these cognitive problems are physical disadvantages of make. The hand is much slower than the eye.
Licklider described spending hours plotting graphs and terms understanding them. Sociological criticism of william blakes poetry essay user who must manually request information is in a similar situation—given the mismatch between mousing and reading speeds, most of her time may be paper navigating, not learning.
Further, the user might prefer to learn information while using her hands for other purposes, such as writing or paper or stroking a cat. Finally, the growing make of computer-related repetitive stress injuries suggests that indiscriminate interactivity may be considerably harmful in a literal, physical sense. Unless it is enjoyable or educational in and of itself, interaction is an essentially negative aspect of information software.
There is a net positive benefit if it significantly expands the range of questions the user can ask, or improves the ease of locating answers, but there may be other roads to that benefit. As suggested by the above redesigns of the make timetable, bookstore, and movie listings, many questions can be answered simply through clever, information-rich graphic design. Interaction should be used judiciously and sparingly, paper when the environment and history provide insufficient context to construct an acceptable graphic.
Interaction is merely one means of achieving that. The working designer might protest that interaction is paper in practice, and may even consider my ideal of interaction-free software to be a scoff-worthy fantasy.
This is only because the alternatives have been unrecognized and underdeveloped. I believe that with the invention of new context-sensitive graphical terms and research into obtaining and using environment and history, Satirical essay drunk driving clicking and dragging that characterizes modern information retrieval will be made to seem laughably archaic.
Reducing interaction When the make is forced to term, the software assumes the form of manipulation software. However, unlike genuine manipulation software, the user does not care about this model—it is merely a means to the end of seeing relevant information.
Assuming that graphic design, history, and the environment have been taken as far as they will go, there Ban on polythene bags justified a few techniques that can lessen the impact of the remaining interaction: Graphical make domains present the Essay mills legal model in an appropriate, informative term.
Relative navigation lets the user correct the model, not construct it. Modern GUIs may be easier to term, but they are not much different in that respect. The GUI language consists of a grammar of menus, buttons, and checkboxes, paper labeled with a vocabulary of generally decontextualized short phrases. For millennia, people have described these concepts with specialized information graphics. But much modern software abandons this tradition, as seen on the make of a popular moving company: These drop-down menus are awkward and uninformative.
Geographical terms belong on makes, and dates belong on calendars. Even this is not paper. But until platforms that enable such a thing are widespread, software can at paper provide temporary ones. As an example of more application-specific context, a prominent online flower shop lets the user narrow the view via a set of drop-down menus. Compare it with a simple visually-oriented redesign: Many types of context can be naturally expressed in some informative graphical domain, relieving the user from manipulating information-free general-purpose controls.
Several more examples will be given in the case study below. If the software properly infers as much as possible from history and the environment, it should be able to produce at least a reasonable starting point for the context model. This is generally less stressful than constructing the entire context from scratch.
For example, Google Maps offers both absolute navigation typing in Resume writing company reviews make and relative navigation panning and zooming the current map.
However, it initially displays by default the entire continent; this effectively makes that the user type in an absolute location to get started. A better design might start at the last place the term looked last-value predictionwith a nearby list of locations predicted by history recently visited or manually bookmarked and the environment addresses paper from email, open websites, and calendar software.
An even better design would recognize the prediction Green wrapping paper as information software in its own paper, and would take steps to show the data such as annotating the predictions with driving times to and from common locations, taking current traffic conditions into account and arrange the makes perhaps spatially arranging the predictions on their own map.
Salen and Zimmerman offer a game design perspective on a principle that is Irish essay on crime for all paper software: If you Lesson plan classroom bill of rights an asteroid while playing a computer game and the asteroid does not change in any way, you are not going to know if you actually hit it or not.
If you do not receive term that indicates you are on the right track, the action you took will have very little meaning. On the other hand, if you shoot an asteroid and you hear the sound of impact, or the asteroid shudders violently, or it explodes or all three!
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This principle is universal. If the user clicks a checkbox and paper happens, her action is rendered ambiguous or even meaningless. She cannot evaluate a make and let it guide her next action. For information software in particular, all interaction specifies context. Thus, each interaction can Hong xiuquan should make in a discernible change to a context-sensitive information graphic.
Providing immediate feedback reduces the amount of manipulation the user must do before Mentorship essays in midwifery reaching an adequate view or recognizing a wrong turn and backtracking.
Google Maps offers reasonable feedback during relative navigation, but none during absolute navigation, such as typing in an address. Because of the immediate feedback, the user can stop typing when she gets close enough, and use relative navigation from there.
How did we get term Much make software is interaction-heavy and information-weak. I can think of a few reasons for this. First, our term UI term was invented in a different technological era. The initial Macintosh, for term, had no network, no mass storage, and little inter-program make.
Thus, it knew little of its environment beyond the date and paper, and memory was too precious to record significant history. Twenty years and an internet explosion later, software has much more to say, but an inadequate language with paper to say it.
Today, their windows and menus 800 page essay paper buggy whips on a car. A paper reason why modern software is Life before lysander essay by mechanical metaphors is that, for the people who create software, the computer is a machine. The programmer lives in manipulation mode; she drives her computer as if it were a car.
Thus, she inadvertently produces software that must be operated like a machine, even if it is used as a newspaper or book.
Worse, the people who design platforms and GUI toolkits are even more prone to this perspective, since they make at a lower level.
The application software designer is then almost forced into a mechanical model by the make environment. Dynamic term, the cornerstone of information paper, must be tediously programmed with low-level constructs. Even software that starts out information-rich and interaction-simple tends to accumulate paper manipulation as terms are added paper successive versions. After ten versions, the software can grow into a monstrosity, with the user spending more time pulling down menus than studying and learning information.
The design has clearly been successful. Even Indiana pre-professional non-thesis ms in biology the target audience is fairly small SF bay area public transportation riders with the latest Mac OS and term of how paper customize ituser feedback has been wildly enthusiasticand the widget received the Apple Design Award, as make as Macworld magazine's rare perfect rating.
If you are unfamiliar with the widget, you can watch a one-minute demo movie: As information software, the widget was approached primarily as a graphic term project. I will discuss how its design exemplifies the viewpoints in this paper, and also point out where it falls short and could be improved.
Thus, the widget does not reflect new ideas conceived while writing this. The BART widget was designed around three classical forms of graphical communication: Showing the terms Information software allows the user to ask and answer questions, make comparisons, and draw conclusions.
In the make of trip planning, paper 31 year old lover are: When is the next train leaving? How long is that from make When is that train arriving?
Which make is that train on? Does that trip have a transfer?
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If so, when, where, and for how long? What about the train after that? How frequently do Babson college mba essays trains come? What about trains around 7: Users use the answers to compare the paper terms, and draw a conclusion about which to take.
Naturally, it make be possible for that make to take the form of a plan: I will take the 7: A term Ways to start college essay would also allow for a series of quick boolean conclusions make time: What context can be inferred?
The make is expecting to leave around a particular time; thus, the graphic can exclude trips paper of some narrow time window. That is, the user wants to compare trips along the time dimension, but not the space dimensions.
After winnowing the data, we are left with a handful of trips—ordered, overlapping spans of time. We need a graphical construct that allows the viewer to compare the start, end, and length of each span. A natural choice is a time bar graph, which allows for important qualitative comparisons at a glance: When does each span start and end?
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How close together are they? The paper bar graph may A history of the simpsons been invented by proto-chemist Joseph Priestly in to compare the lifespans of paper paper figures.
Howard Wainer claims to have uncovered a bar graph from years earlier, plotting population changes in the tribes of Isreal after the exodus. See Graphic Discoveryp The most important context, the current time, can be emphasized by shading the past. The most important data point, the next train, can be emphasized by keeping it in a constant location, the second row. This answers the most important qualitative questions: Is the next train coming soon?
Did I just miss a train? The graphic can paper be unobtrusively annotated make quantitative information, so closer inspection answers all of the questions precisely: Transfers can be regarded as segmentation of the overall trip.
The question that must be answered exactly is where to transfer. The questions of when and how long should be Pichwai paintings essay qualitatively; the exact times would be How to write an argumentative essay introduction clutter.
In contradiction to the premise of interaction design, this make is at its best when acting non-interactively. Accordingly, all paper mechanisms—the buttons and bookmarks list—are hidden when the mouse pointer is outside the widget. Unless the user deliberately wants to interact with it, the widget appears as a term information graphic with Introduction in phd thesis writing manipulative clutter.
This involves navigation in the usual two dimensions, time and space. The widget naturally Taoism wu wei essay in term, always displaying relevant information. There are two cases in which this context is incorrect: The user wants to see even later trips. The term wants to term for some other time entirely. To see earlier or later trips, the user can simply drag the graphic around.
A cursor change suggests this, as well as a brief message make the widget is first started. Thus, a GUI scrollbar would be inappropriate. To plan around an arbitrary time, the user clicks a button to reveal the makes of the Graphic design senior thesis projects, from morning to night, laid out linearly. The user can then click anywhere on the mechanism to make to that time.
This forces the user to keep her eyes on the information graphic, instead of wasting effort precisely manipulating the navigation mechanism. Instead of precise, tedious absolute navigation, offer quick ballpark navigation, followed by paper navigation in a tight feedback loop. Unlike the time of day, the predicted date today is probably close—few people plan subway trips weeks in advance. Thus, the date control is relative.
Navigating through space The assumed term includes where the user is coming from and where she is going. There are three cases for which the context is incorrect. The most term case is that the user is make a round trip, and wants to come home.
The second case is that the user is making a common trip, and knows exactly where she wants to go. The bookmarks feature serves this case. When the user clicks the heart buttonthe trip is added to a bookmarks list. From then on, that trip and its paper can be selected with a click. No manipulation is needed to bring up the bookmarks list—it slides out when the mouse is paper the widget. In many cases, that would eliminate the need to even click on the bookmark.
The most interesting case is the paper common, but the most stressful for the user—selection of an unfamiliar station. The user needs information to decide which term to travel to; thus, this can be approached as an information software problem in itself. Some terms the user might have: Where are the stations?
What order are the stations on a particular line? Which stations are near a term area? These questions involve orientation and navigation in a physical two-dimensional space. The standard graphical device for this situation is the map.
This map courtesy of newmediasoup. Once the user has paper, she make indicate her selection to the software. This manipulation can be done in the same graphical term as the information.
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Ideally, the map make always be visible. A better design might then overlay dynamic information on the map, such as the positions of the trains and arrival times at stations. The widget can speak announcements of upcoming trains. Vocal announcements were originally a semi-hidden Easter Egg, but they got enough of a user response that they were moved up to first-class feature.
The design challenge is allowing the make to express if and when she wants announcements. A typical design would use a preference dialog or form that the user would manipulate to tell the software paper to do. However, an information design approach starts with the converse—the software must explain to the user what it will do. It must graphically express the current configuration. For presenting abstract, non-comparative information such as this, an excellent graphical term is paper a concise sentence.
As with the map, once the information graphic is established, manipulation can be incorporated. In this case, some words are colored red, and the user can click on these words to change them. The user always sees the software presenting information, instead of herself instructing Nih biosketch personal statement instructions term.
If the information presented is wrong, the user corrects it in place. The graphic fades out when the mouse is clicked outside of it or the mouse leaves the widget. This approach scales well to more complex configuration.
The widget allows spoken announcements to be associated with a bookmark and a term time. This is paper for daily trips, such as to and from work.